Essack v Sun International: Legal Perspectives on Compulsive Gambling Liability


In the case of Essack and Another v Sun International South Africa (Pty) Ltd and Others, the Gauteng High Court grappled with the liability of a casino owner for losses incurred by a compulsive gambler. The plaintiff, Essack, sought damages of R 5.2 million, alleging that the casino, despite his excluded status, allowed him to gamble and encouraged substantial losses. The court considered both statutory and common-law duties in its ruling and dismissed his claim for damages.

The court determined that the statutory obligations imposed on the casino were designed for the collective benefit of the community, rather than specifically addressing the challenges faced by individuals like Essack, who was regarded as the architect of his financial misfortune. The court pointed out that suggesting the regulations place a responsibility on the casino implies a scenario where a compulsive gambler could retain their winnings despite violating the rules, while simultaneously holding the casino accountable for their losses. Such a proposition, the court argued, would undermine the intended purpose of the regulations, and fail to align with the broader public interest, akin to the proverbial impossibility of having one’s cake and eating it too.

Summary of the Law:

Statutory Claim and the Madrassa Principle: Essack’s statutory claim, asserting a violation of gambling regulations, was dismissed by the court. The judgment contended that the regulations aimed at criminal offences were societal protection measures, not grounds for individual claims. However, it’s argued that the Madrassa principle, which examines a statute’s language for available remedies, was overlooked. This could potentially support a damages claim against the casino.

Delictual Claim and the Reeves Dictum: The court rejected Essack’s delictual claim based on the Reeves dictum, stating that the law doesn’t protect individuals from the harm they inflict upon themselves. Critics argue that this dictum is outdated, given contemporary South African statutes and regulations that mandate protection against self-inflicted harm.

Comparisons with Foreign Jurisdictions: The court cited foreign cases where no duty of care was imposed on casinos regarding problem gamblers. However, it is suggested that the court overlooked Australian and Canadian precedents where such duty of care was recognised in instances of problem gambling.

Legal Duty towards Problem Gamblers: The court took a stern stance on individual responsibility over the casino’s role in causing losses. Contrarily, it’s argued that casinos have a legal duty, per gambling regulations, to monitor and prevent problem gambling. These regulations align with the recognition of problem gambling as a serious issue by the Gauteng Gambling Review Commission.

Precedents on Commercial Hosts’ Duty: While South Africa lacks the doctrine of commercial host liability, cases have established that commercial establishments, including casinos, must ensure the safety of patrons. This duty, akin to commercial host liability, demands reasonable steps to prevent foreseeable harm.


In conclusion, the Essack case’s findings may be contestable, with potential counterarguments challenging the court’s stance. The rejection of both statutory and delictual claims could be questioned, considering the Madrassa principle and evolving perspectives on individual responsibility versus institutional duties. Furthermore, the court’s reliance on foreign cases may not fully capture the nuanced legal landscape surrounding problem gambling. The emerging recognition of casinos’ legal duty to prevent harm to patrons, as seen in other jurisdictions, raises questions about the adequacy of current legal standards in South Africa. As gambling-related issues continue to evolve globally, future cases may prompt a reconsideration of the legal responsibilities of casinos towards compulsive gamblers, paving the way for a more nuanced and comprehensive legal framework.

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